1. Document Conventions

1. Document Conventions

In this manual, certain words are represented in different fonts, typefaces, sizes, and weights. This highlighting is systematic; different words are represented in the same style to indicate their inclusion in a specific category. The types of words that are represented this way include the following:


Linux commands (and other operating system commands, when used) are represented this way. This style should indicate to you that you can type the word or phrase on the command line and press Enter to invoke a command. Sometimes a command contains words that would be displayed in a different style on their own (such as file names). In these cases, they are considered to be part of the command, so the entire phrase is displayed as a command. For example:

Use the cat testfile command to view the contents of a file, named testfile, in the current working directory.

file name

File names, directory names, paths, and RPM package names are represented this way. This style indicates that a particular file or directory exists with that name on your system. Examples:

The .bashrc file in your home directory contains bash shell definitions and aliases for your own use.

The /etc/fstab file contains information about different system devices and file systems.

Install the webalizer RPM if you want to use a Web server log file analysis program.


This style indicates that the program is an end-user application (as opposed to system software). For example:

Use Mozilla to browse the Web.


A key on the keyboard is shown in this style. For example:

To use Tab completion to list particular files in a directory, type ls, then a character, and finally the Tab key. Your terminal displays the list of files in the working directory that begin with that character.


A combination of keystrokes is represented in this way. For example:

The Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key combination exits your graphical session and returns you to the graphical login screen or the console.

text found on a GUI interface

A title, word, or phrase found on a GUI interface screen or window is shown in this style. Text shown in this style indicates a particular GUI screen or an element on a GUI screen (such as text associated with a checkbox or field). Example:

Select the Require Password checkbox if you would like your screensaver to require a password before stopping.

top level of a menu on a GUI screen or window

A word in this style indicates that the word is the top level of a pulldown menu. If you click on the word on the GUI screen, the rest of the menu should appear. For example:

Under File on a GNOME terminal, the New Tab option allows you to open multiple shell prompts in the same window.

Instructions to type in a sequence of commands from a GUI menu look like the following example:

Go to Applications (the main menu on the panel) => Programming => Emacs Text Editor to start the Emacs text editor.

button on a GUI screen or window

This style indicates that the text can be found on a clickable button on a GUI screen. For example:

Click on the Back button to return to the webpage you last viewed.

computer output

Text in this style indicates text displayed to a shell prompt such as error messages and responses to commands. For example:

The ls command displays the contents of a directory. For example:

Desktop    about.html    logs     paulwesterberg.png
Mail    backupfiles    mail     reports

The output returned in response to the command (in this case, the contents of the directory) is shown in this style.


A prompt, which is a computer's way of signifying that it is ready for you to input something, is shown in this style. Examples:



[stephen@maturin stephen]$

leopard login:

user input

Text that the user types, either on the command line or into a text box on a GUI screen, is displayed in this style. In the following example, text is displayed in this style:

To boot your system into the text based installation program, you must type in the text command at the boot: prompt.


Text used in examples that is meant to be replaced with data provided by the user is displayed in this style. In the following example, <version-number> is displayed in this style:

The directory for the kernel source is /usr/src/kernels/<version-number>/, where <version-number> is the version and type of kernel installed on this system.

Additionally, we use several different strategies to draw your attention to certain pieces of information. In order of urgency, these items are marked as a note, tip, important, caution, or warning. For example:


Remember that Linux is case sensitive. In other words, a rose is not a ROSE is not a rOsE.


The directory /usr/share/doc/ contains additional documentation for packages installed on your system.


If you modify the DHCP configuration file, the changes do not take effect until you restart the DHCP daemon.


Do not perform routine tasks as root — use a regular user account unless you need to use the root account for system administration tasks.


Be careful to remove only the necessary partitions. Removing other partitions could result in data loss or a corrupted system environment.

Note: This documentation is provided {and copyrighted} by Red Hat®, Inc. and is released via the Open Publication License. The copyright holder has added the further requirement that Distribution of substantively modified versions of this document is prohibited without the explicit permission of the copyright holder. The CentOS project redistributes these original works (in their unmodified form) as a reference for CentOS-5 because CentOS-5 is built from publicly available, open source SRPMS. The documentation is unmodified to be compliant with upstream distribution policy. Neither CentOS-5 nor the CentOS Project are in any way affiliated with or sponsored by Red Hat®, Inc.